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今天的文章來自The Economist 5月4日Business版塊:Modern dress codes are easier for men than for womenBartleby巴托比Struggling with style穿什麼Modern dress codes are easier for men than for women男性比女性更容易執行現代著裝規范SUMMER’S ARRIVAL in the northern hemisphere brings with it a dilemma that plagues every office worker. What does a casual dress code mean in practice? The happy medium between looking like Kim Kardashian or Hagrid the giant is hard to pin down.北半球入夏瞭,給每個上班族帶來瞭難題。“休閑著裝規范’到底要怎麼操作?要在看上去像金卡戴珊( Kim Kardashian)和像巨人海格(Hagrid)之間找到一個滿意的平衡點,實在太難瞭。pin downIf you try to pinsomething down, you try to discover exactly what, where, or when it is. 弄懂;確定例:It has taken until now to pin down its exact location.一直到現在才確定瞭它的準確位置。Goldman Sachs has just implemented a “flexible dress code” although the executive memo noted gnomically that “casual dress is not appropriate every day”. Besuited corporate clients might not take kindly to investment-banking advice offered by someone wearing a tank top and ripped jeans.高盛剛剛實行瞭“彈性著裝規范”,然而其行政備忘錄中不無深意地寫著“休閑裝並不適合每天穿著”。西裝革履的企業客戶估計不會欣然接受穿著背心和破洞牛仔褲的投行員工給出的建議。gnomic /nomk/ [a]said or written using few words that are difficult to understand精辟的;深奧的例:He made gnomicutterances concerning death.他就死亡話題說瞭一番精辟的話。take kindly to sb doing sth.欣然接受某人做某事wear a tank top穿背心裝tank top背心裝It makes sense that banking would be one of the last bastions to fall to the advance of casual workwear. You want the people who look after your money to appear sober and respectable.For similar reasons, bank headquarters have deliberately been built in a grandiose style to emphasise the institution’s nancial solidity and historical roots. Depositors might hesitate about handing over their savings to people working under a railway arch.在普及休閑工作裝的進程中,銀行會是最難攻克的堡壘之一,這合乎情理。你總歸:希望那些幫你打理錢財的人看上去冷靜又得體。出於類似的原因,銀行總部總是刻意建得宏偉,以彰顯這個機構財務穩健、歷史悠久。如果要把存款交給在鐵路橋橋洞下工作的人,儲戶可能就會遲疑。bastion /bstn/ [c]a place or system in which something (such as an old-fashioned idea) continues to survive堡壘 例:The neighborhood is considered by many to be the city's last liberal/conservative bastion. [=the only place left in the city where liberal/conservative ideas are still accepted]這個街區被視為是這座城市自由主義/保守主義觀點僅存的最後堡壘。grandiose /grndios/ [a]seeming to be impressive or intended to be impressive but not really possible or practical華而不實的;浮誇的 例:He was full of grandioseideas.他滿腦子都是些華而不實的想法。For men, the move to casual dress seems entirely positive. Few people will mourn the demise of the tie, a functionally useless garment that constricted male necks for a century. The tie’s origins date back to the 17th century, when mercenaries hired by Louis XIII of France wore a form of cravat.The modern version of the tie emerged in the 1920s and was popularized by Britain’s Edward VIII who, when not flirting with the Nazis, developed the Windsor knot. It became standard office wear for the next six decades.In the 1990s ties started to go out of fashion because technology titans and hedge-fund managers refused to wear them—and were rich enough to ignore social convention. Once, when Mark Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, was to meet a venture capitalist, he turned up wearing his pyjamas.對於男性來說,轉向休閑裝似乎隻有好處。幾乎沒人會哀悼領帶的消亡。一個世紀以來,這個毫無實用功能的東西一直束縛著男人們的脖子。領帶的起源可以追溯到17世紀,當時法國國王路易十三的雇傭兵佩戴著一種領巾。現代領帶出現在上世紀20年代,由英國國王愛德華八世推而廣之。在和納粹眉來眼去之餘,他推動瞭溫莎結。接下來的60年裡,領帶成瞭辦公室著裝的標配。到瞭90年代,領帶開始過時,因為科技巨頭和對沖基金經理拒絕佩戴它,而且他們財力雄厚,可以無視社交習俗。Facebook的創始人馬克紮克伯格某次跟一位風險投資傢會面時甚至穿著睡衣。mercenary/msnr/ [c]A mercenary is a soldier who is paid to fight by a country or group that they do not belong to. 雇傭兵flirt with sb. 和……眉來眼去If you flirtwithsomeone, you behave as if you are sexually attracted to them, in a playful or not very serious way. 跟…調情例:Dad's flirting with all the ladies, or they're all flirting with him, as usual.爸爸在和所有的女士打情罵俏,或者說她們都在和他調情,跟平常一樣。The jacket, by contrast, is a much more useful garment, replete with pockets to house wallets, spectacle cases and travel passes (or, these days, mobile phones). So the default work garb for men, when meeting clients, is jacket, open-necked shirt and dark trousers (denim excluded).相比之下,夾克的實用性要強得多。夾克上滿是口袋,可以裝錢包、眼鏡盒和交通卡(或者如今的手機)。所以現在男性在會見客戶時,默認的工作服是夾克、開領襯衫和深色褲子(牛仔褲除外)。(denim excluded):(牛仔褲除外)denim/dnm/[c]pants that are made of denim牛仔褲例:He's wearing faded denimsand cowboy boots.他穿著褪瞭色的牛仔褲和一雙牛仔靴。On days without meetings, men can slob out in T-shirts (though not too garish) and jeans, and no one will think the worse of them. Arriving in shorts or without socks is another matter entirely. But dressing in the morning is quick and easy. Steve Jobs was famous for wearing the same outfit—black polo neck, jeans and trainers—every day.But what works well for men does not translate as easily to women. Karl Stefanovic, an Australian television presenter, wore the same blue suit every day for a year and no one noticed. By contrast, his female co-presenters received constant remarks on their appearance. Even the Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton, gets snarky comments when she wears the same clothes twice.在不開會的那些日子,男性可以隨便套上件T恤(但別太花哨)和牛仔褲就出門,沒人會瞧不起他們。穿著短褲或者不穿襪子上班就完全是另一回事瞭。但男人們清早穿衣服真是又快又簡單。喬佈斯就以每天穿同樣的黑色高領衫、牛仔褲和運動鞋聞名。但在男性身上行之有效的方式並不那麼容易移植到女性身上。澳大利亞電視節目主持人卡爾斯特凡諾維奇( Karl Stefanovic)曾經一整年裡每天都穿著同樣的藍色套裝,並沒有誰註意這件事。但和他搭檔的女主持們卻不斷收到對她們穿著的評論。就連凱特王妃也因為兩次穿同一件衣服受到尖刻的批評。slob out in…:隨便套件…衣服出門think the worse of…:瞧不起…snarky /snk/ [a]criticizing sb in an unkind way 尖銳批評的;諷刺挖苦的例:a snarky remark 尖刻的指責尖刻的Women’s workwear seems to have become less formal over time. A survey by Euromonitor found that sales of women’s suits fell by 77% in America between 2007 and 2016. But many women worry that they will be judged as unprofessional (unlike their male colleagues) if their clothes are deemed to be too scruffy, or too revealing.It can also be hard choosing clothes that are suitable for both indoors and out. Air-conditioning systems in offices are often designed to suit the male metabolic rate, which can cope with colder temperatures than the female body. The result may be that women have to bring an extra layer to wear in the building.隨著時間的推移,女性的職場著裝似乎變得不那麼正式瞭。歐睿(Euromonitor)的一項調查發現, 2007年到2016年,美國女式套裝的銷量下跌瞭77%。但許多女性擔心,不同於她們的男同事,如果她們的衣服看上去太邋遢或太暴露,人們就會認為她們不專業。選擇既適合室內又適合戶外的衣服也可能頗麻煩。辦公室空調系統的設計通常都適合男性的新陳代謝率——他們比女性的身體更能適應較低的溫度。結果可能是女性不得不在室內多穿一層衣服。deem [vt]If something is deemedtohave a particular quality or to do a particular thing, it is considered to have that quality or do that thing. 認為; 相信例:French and German were deemed essential.法語和德語被認為是必需的。cope withIf you cope with a problem or task, you deal with it successfully. (妥善地) 處理;應付 (困難局面)例:It was amazing how my mother coped with bringing up three children on less than thirty dollars a week.讓人驚嘆的是我媽媽怎樣以每周不到30美元的開銷養大瞭3個孩子。As for formal meetings, while men have abandoned the tie, many women feel obliged to wear high heels. These give some women a sense of empowerment and femininity (not to mention extra height). But in health terms, heels can seem like the Western equivalent of the ancient Chinese practice of foot-binding:bad for women’s feet, ankles and backs and designed to limit their mobility. Britain’s Parliament held a debate after a woman was sent home from her job as a receptionist for refusing to wear high heels (it was inconclusive).在正式會議上,雖然男人們已經不再打領帶,許多女員工卻仍覺得隻能穿高跟鞋。高跟鞋給瞭一些女性一種賦權感和女性氣質(更不用說還增加瞭身高)。但從健康的角度來看,高跟鞋似乎與中國古代的纏足類似:對女性的足部、踝部和背部有害,並且還是為限制她們的活動能力。在一位公司前臺女員工因拒絕穿高跟鞋而遭辭退後,英國議會舉行瞭一場辯論(沒有得出什麼結論)。be obliged to覺得隻能做……oblige /bla/ [vt]If you are obliged to do something, a situation, rule, or law makes it necessary for you to do that thing. (按法律或規則)強迫,強制,迫使例:The storm got worse and worse. Finally, I was obliged to abandon the car and continue on foot.暴風雨越來越猛烈。最終,我被迫棄車徒步前行。femininity/fmnnt/ [u]Femininity means the qualities that are considered to be typical of women. 女性氣質例:I wonder if there isn't a streak of femininity in him, a kind of sweetness.我想知道他身上是否沒有一絲女性氣質,一種溫柔。foot-binding纏足Companies understandably want workers who deal with the public to look respectable. Workers shouldn’t wear clothes that wouldn’t be appropriate if visiting a prudish grandmother or a child’s teacher. And yet no one should be expected to turn up at the oce as if dressed for a wedding. The most important item to bring to work is a dose of sartorial common sense.公司希望與公眾打交道的員工看起來得體,這可以理解。如果一套衣服不適合穿著去拜訪古板拘謹的老祖母或是孩子的老師,那就不該穿去上班。但同時,也不應期待人們上班穿得跟參加婚禮似的。最應該帶著上班的“單品”是一套穿衣風格上的常識。sartorial /sɑtrl/[a]of or relating to clothes服裝的;穿衣風格上的例:They accused him of having poor sartorialtaste.他們指責他著裝的品位差。

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